Guarani Corpus

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Additional Resources Publications

Ra'e Evidential

Mombe'u Stories

Story #1

ra'eEmbedded speaker-oriented evidential, slight surprise/ra'e scope over. Possible insertion of Sub 'ha': ...o-jopy ha ra'e la mbó-ipe ha nd-oi-katu-vé-i o-sẽ iguýgui.
Evid Def.Det snake-DOM Conj Neg-3Sg-can-more-Neg 3Sg-go.out under-from

the snake [he realized] and he could not get out from under it.

a la víbora [había sido que] y no podía salir de debajo de ella.


Embedded clause, embedded subject oriented, slight surprise.

Possible insertion of Subordinator ha: …o-jopy ha ra'e.

For G, both with and without ha is possible; M prefers without it. M appears to disprefer Subordinator ha, unless assertive strength is intended.

ha upéi hasý-pe la karai'y o-guenohẽ chupeOvert Direct Object Pronoun ra'e.Matrix, speaker oriented evidentiality/slight surprise
Conj then fatigue-Loc Def.Det 3Sg-remove 3.Pron.DO Evid

and then in the end the young man took him out, it turns out.

y después a la cansada el muchacho lo sacó.


Matrix, speaker oriented.

ha o-mombe'u chupe mba'éicha-pa la mbói o-ĩ ra'eRa'e is goal oriented. Element of surprise. hínaDoes not contribute to the temporality.
Conj 3Pl-tell 3Sg.Pron.IO manner-Q Def.Det snake Evid Emph/Assert

and told him how the snake was/had been (ra'e progessive)

y [ellos] le contaron [al caballo] como [la manera en que] estaba la víbora


Ra'e is goal oriented.

The horse (goal/addressee of matrix verb ‘tell') is the one that ‘finds out'.

Element of surprise.

ha mba'é-pa la karia'y o-japo hese ra'e.Ra'e is goal oriented
Conj what-Q Def.Det lad 3Sg-do 3Sg.Pron.Obl Evid

and told him what the young man had done for him ra'e.

y lo que el muchacho le hizo.


(Continuation of the sentence above)

Ra'e goal oriented.

The horse (goal/addressee of matrix verb ‘tell') is the one that ‘finds out'.

ani[ke] che-mbotavy. Ja-hechá-ta moõ-pa la reime ra'e,Ra'e goal oriented - Ra'e puts emphasis on the locative predicate.
Neg.Imp 1Sg-trick 1Pl-see-Prosp where-Q Def.Det 2Sg-be.Loc Evid

"don't trick me. Let's go see where you have been,"

"no me vayan a enganãr. Vamos a ver donde es lo que estuviste,"


Ra'e goal oriented.

[ra'e puts emphasis on the existential predicate]

The fox has hearsay evidence that the snake had been under the rock and wants to verify the evidence – evidential orientation is towards matrix subject. The subject is in the inclusive plural –it includes the speaker (the fox) and the addressee of the saying event (the snake), and possibly the speaker.

The one that recently discovered is the fox (speaker)/ not the snake (recipient), although both are included in the reference of the matrix subj.

ja-hecha añeté-pa la rei-me asy ra'e.Matrix subject oriented
1Pl.Incl-see true-Tot Def.Det 2Sg-be.Loc suffer Evid

"let us truly see the place where you were suffering."

"vamos a ver de verdad el lugar [donde] estuviste sufriente."


Matrix, subject oriented. (the matrix subject = speaker, indirect speech)

Again the fox has hearsay evidence of the situation in which the snake had been and wants to verify, but he uses a subj, which includes speaker [=matrix subj] and the addressee [the goal].

[hasy ha ra'e also possible: …..jahecha añetépa la reime asy ha ra'e]

G is fine with Sub –ha; M prefers without it.

M's comments:

In the presence of Sub -ha there is emphasis on the predicate ‘reime asy'; if there is certainty on the state, it appears to clash with ‘ra'e' which signals lack of certainty; better if ‘ne' is added (although meaning is not the same): jachecha la reime asý-ne ha ra'e).

In the presence of 'ha' there is emphasis on the predicate ‘reime asy', with strong assertive force. The latter appears to clash with ‘ra'e' which signals lack of certainty; better if weak epistemic modal ‘ne' is added (although meaning is not the same): jachecha la reime asý-ne ha ra'e).

M allows drop with verb of saying; his example: Ha'e-ngo he'i oĩ-se(ha) ñanendive. (El dice que quiere estar con nosotros.)

With Sub -ha, more emphatic: he ‘really' wants to be with us.

Story #2

Iñepyrῦ-rã guasu oi-mo'ã jatevu o-ñe'ẽ reínte ra'e.Embedded matrix subject oriented
At the beginning deer 3Sg-believe tick 3Sg.-speak in-vain Evid

At first, the deer thought that the tick was speaking in vain.

Al comienzo, el venado pensó que la garratapa hablaba en balde.


Embedded ra'e; no ha, speaker/narrator oriented. The narrator realizes that deer wrongly thinks that the tick is talking in vain (the narrator knows that that is not the case, as suggested by what comes next in the story). In this case, no subordinator ha is possible.

o-po guasu rumby rague rehe ra'e.Matrix, speaker/narrator oriented
3Sg-jump deer behind hair Prep.Obl Evid

jumped [caught] on the hair of the deer's behind.

saltó sobre [se prendió por] el pelo del trasero del venado, había sido.


Matrix, speaker/narrator oriented; nimbo/ra'e marks the entire sentence in focus.

Story #3

la ka'i-mi ñane-mo-kyrỹi-rõ ra'eEmbedded in conditional. Speaker-oriented, indirect discourse. ——he'i.
Def.Det monkey-Dim 1Pl.Incl-Caus-tickle-when Evid ——3Sg.say [the tiger]

"when the little monkey tickles us," said [the tiger].

"cuando el mono nos hace cosquilla había sido," dijo [el tigre].


Ra'e: embedded in when-conditional.

[speaker (=the tiger) oriented: tiger realizes that it is pleasing when the monkey tickles them]

[Note that speaker (=the tiger) + other is also the implicit benefactive of matrix - predicate, impersonal 3P Spanish-based ‘i-gusto'; PG counterpart: o-ñe-ñandu-porãite (=Gustar)

I-gústo.ité[re]i-ko añete [ra'e]la ka'imi [ra'e]ñane-mokyrỹi-rõ ra'e –he'i [ha'e].

ra'e can appear after ‘la ka'imi' [emphasis on ka'imi]

ra'e can appear after ‘añete' [emphasis on añete]

In the context, ra'e is more natural at the end; without emphasis.

Note: word order (fronting of conditional) possible: la ka'imi ñane-mokyrỹi-rõ ra'e i-gústo-ité[re]i-ko

Ha'e oi-mo'ã o-soña hínaContinuative ra'e;Embedded ra'e, narrator/speaker oriented
He 3Pl-think 3Pl-dream Cont Evid

He thought he was dreaming;

El creyó que estaba soñando;


Embedded ra'e: narrator (speaker) oriented: realization that tiger wrongly thinks that he is dreaming; no sub ha insertion; sub ha would shift orientation to matrix subj ‘the tiger'].

oimo'ã osoña [*ha] hina ra'e.

Alternative Word order: ra'e after matrix verb (in matrix clause): oimo'ã (ra'e) osoña (??ra'e) hina (ra'e).

hese o-hó-vo ra'eMatrix ra'e, speaker oriented la pytũmbý-pe.
3Pron.Dat 3Sg-go-goal Evid Def.Det dark-Loc

him in the darkness.

-le en la oscuridad.


Matrix ra'e; speaker-oriented: The monkey was already also touching him [=the tiger] in the darkness [the narrator realizes].

=Nimbo ra'e, ka'i o-pokó-ma avei hese ohóvo la pytũmbýpe [wide focus]

≠Nimbo ka'i ra'e o.pokó.ma avei hese ohóvo la pytũmbýpe. [narrow focus on subj]

Story #4

nipo ra'eMatrix ra'e, speaker oriented - Narrator realizes chavurró-nte o-ñe'ẽ hínaContinuative [ra'e]Either ra'e can be omitted kavaju ndive.
Part Evid donkey-only 3Sg-speak Cont [Evid] horse with

it turns out that it was only the donkey speaking with the horse.

había sido el burro nomás estaba hablando con el caballo.


Matrix ra'e: speaker-oriented: narrator realizes.

Either ra'e can be omitted.

Story #5

o-guejy- ha-gueSubordinator 'ha' hoy'u i-jyguá-pe ra'eEmbedded ra'e: matrix subject oriented jaguareté's discovery/realization that the monkeys had come to drink there
3Sg.come.down- Sub-Term.Asp 3Pl.drink 3.Poss-fountain-Loc Evid

who had come down to drink in his fountain.

que habían bajado a tomar en su fuente (había sido que).


Embedded ra'e: matrix subject oriented jaguareté's discovery/realization that the monkeys had come to drink there.

Presence of –hágue obligatory.

Different positions of ra'e, but changes meaning, namely what the discovery was: …o-pillá-ma [ohechakuaa] ka'i kuéra o-guejy-ha-gue (ra'e) hoy'u i-jyguá-pe (ra'e)

——Ma'ẽ, o-manó-mbo amigo jaguarete ápe ra'eMatrix ra'e, speaker oriented - realization of the speaker/monkey ——he'i ndaje.
——Look 3Sg-die-Part friend tiger here Evid ——3Sg.say Report

"Look, the friend tiger died here, it appears," it is said that he said.

"Mira, murió aquí el amigo jaguareté, había sido," se dice que dijo.


Matrix ra'e: realization of the monkey that is speaking. Direct discourse: the monkey as speaker.

Word order: Ma'ẽ, o-manó (ra'e) amigo jaguarete ápe (ra'e )–he'i ndaje.

First ra'e puts emphasis on the death; second ra'e has scope over the predicate (jaguarete's death at that place and puts emphasis on the place –and implies that it is strange that he would have died in that place)

-mbo [nimbo] introduces uncertainty.

Ha jaguarete oi-mo'ã o-jorá-ta chupe Overt Direct Object (DO) Pronoun hikuái ra'ẽ,Embedded ra'e, matrix subject oriented (juagarete's realization)
Conj tiger 3Sg-think 3Pl-untie-Prosp 3.Pron.DO 3Pl.Pron.Subj Evid

And the tiger thought that they would untie him [he realized],

Y el jaguareté creyó que le iban a desatar [se dio cuenta],


Embedded ra'e: matrix subject oriented (juagarete's realization)

Both consultant accepts presence of sub ha in this case: oimo'ã ojorá-ta ha chupe hikuái ra'e

From M: there is certainty on the part of the matrix subject (closer in meaning to ‘imagine', as if he seeing events happening as in a movie)

Story #6

o-moĩ-mba-ite ra'eMatrix ra'e, speaker oriented la káncha puku-kue javeve, pe kapi'í-pe kuápe.
3Sg-put-Compl-Superl Evid Def.Det field length-Term meanwhile Dem grass-Loc inside

had meanwhile fully positioned themselves along the entire length of the field, inside the grass. [the narrator realizes]

se colocaron a lo largo de la cancha, dentro del largo pasto.


Matrix ra'e: speaker = narrator oriented.

Story #7

Aguara oi-kuaa-se máva-pa o-ú-va ra'eEmbedded, wh-complement, matrix subject oriented la h.óga-pe ojatapy.
Fox 3Sg-know-Des who-Q 3Sg-come-Rel Evid Def.Det 3.Poss-house-Loc 3Sg-fire

The fox wanted to know who is the one that was making a fire in his house.

El zorro quiso saber quién es el que vino a hacer el fuego en su casa


Embedded, wh-compl, matrix subj oriented.

Matrix subj finds out that someone made the fire in the house and he wants to know who did it.

Story #8

Mbohapy ka'i rupi nimbo i-kunpleáno hínaAdds emphasis to the event. ra'e,Matrix ra'e; speaker/narrator oriented; scope of ra'e marked by nimbo: monkeys' had birthday (the object of discovery)
Three monkey around Part 3.Poss-birthday Cont Evid

Three monkeys had a birthday, it turns out,

Tres monos estaban de cumpleaños, había sido,


Matrix ra'e; speaker/narrator oriented; scope of ra'e marked by nimbo:

monkeys' had birthday (the object of discovery)

Story #9

Ka'i nimbo oho ojuhu ra'eMatrix clause, speaker-oriented, nimbo introduces some uncertainty peteĩ leõ akãngue
Monkey Part 3Sg-go 3Sg-find Evid one lion head

It is said that the monkey went to find [go find] a lion's head

El mono había sido que se fue a encontrar una cabeza de león


Ra'e: Matrix clause, speaker-oriented, nimbo introduces some uncertainty.

Story #10

nimbo oi-pota itereí -maAspect/Focalizer '-ma' hínaEmphasis on Superlative ra'eMatrix, declarative, narrator-oriented (ha'é-ngo i-taryrýi eterei voi).Focalizer Particle 'voi'
Part 3Sg-want Superl -Asp Cont Evid 3.Pron.Nom-FOC 3Sg-greedy Superl FOC

it seems that he wanted it so much (he is of course very greedy).

había sido que demasiado ya quería (él luego es demasiado codicioso luego).


Matrix; declarative; Narrator-oriented

Ha'e hesarái voiFocalizer Particle 'voi' ma'erã-pa o-u ra'eEmbedded wh-complement. Matrix subject oriented la Peru rendá-pe.
3.Pron.Nom 3Sg-forget FOC what.for-Q 3Sg-come Evid Def.Det Peru place-Loc.Prep

He had forgotten for what reason he came to see Peru.

Él se olvidó luego para que vino junto a Peru.


Embedded wh-complement, no Sub 'ha' possible.

Matrix subject oriented: the king forgot why he came to see Peru (he realizes).

Story #11

(oi-mo’ã la pála-re he’i chupe ra’e).Embedded, declarative, narrator/speaker oriented
3Sg-believe Def.Det shovel-Obl 3Sg.say 3.Pron.DO Evid

(he thought he was talking about the shovels).

(creyó que le decía por las palas, había sido).


Embedded; declarative; Narrator/Speaker oriented.

Subordinator ha absent; Presence of Sub ha not possible (if ha is added, perspective changes to matrix subj)

Story #12

mba’e-pa o-japo ra’eEmbedded, wh-complement of 'o-porandú', matrix subject oriented ha’e la mba’e o-guenohẽ va’ekue hikuái-gui.
thing-Q 3Pl-do Evid 3.Pron Def.Det thing 3Pl-take.out Rel.Distal 3Pl.Pron.Subj-Prep

what they had done with the things they had dug out.

qué habían hecho de las cosas que habían sacado ellos.


Embedded, wh-complement of (o) porandu (ask)

Matrix subject oriented; Leokadio realizes that the addressee had taken things they dug out.

Alternative position of ra'e (with emphasis on wh-phrase): ha Leokádio oporandúma chupe mba'e-pa ra'e ojapo ha'e.

yvy-guý-gui ra'e,Ra'e narrator/speaker oriented, part of matrix (edge of Rel clause) la entierro reka há-pe.Locational Relative Pronoun 'ha'
earth-under-Prep Evid Def.Det dug search Rel.Loc

from under the ground, it turns out, searching for the treasure.

de debajo de la tierra, había sido que, buscando lo enterrado [=tesoro].


Ra'e narrator oriented/part of matrix (edge of rel. clause); ra'e placement after verb oguenohẽ not possible.

nimbo upéa la o-guenohẽ va’ekue ra'eMatrix clause, to the right of relative clause, narrator oriented la i-konpádre Vito ndíve:
Part that Def.Det 3Sg-arrive Rel.Distal Evid Def.Det 3.Poss-friend Vito with

It turns out that it was what he had taken out with his friend Victor [narrator discovers]:

Había sido eso era lo que había sacado con su compadre Vito:


Matrix; after relative clause [ra'e should not be able to appear after verb oguenohe].

Narrator-oriented (= who is also a participant in the story)

Ijypy-(gua)rã ndajeReportative Evidential 'ndaje' o-guenohẽ hikuái i-konpádre ndive ra'eMatrix clause, narrator oriented
3Sg.start-Irr Report.Evid 3Pl-take.out 3Pl.Pron.Subj 3.Poss-friend with Evid

It is said that, to start with, they had taken out with his friend

Se dice que, para comenzar, habían sacado con su compadre, había sido que,


Matrix ra'e, narrator-oriented.

In this case, ra'e can be located after the verb oguenohẽ or after ndaje or after ijypyrã, with different emphasis: Ijypy-(gua)rã (ra'e) ndaje (ra'e) o-guenohẽ (ra'e) hikuái i-konpádre ndive

(Nda-ha’é-i ra'eMatrix Clause, narrator oriented Leokádio mba’e-rã, ha ha’e o-guenohẽ-se katu-ete.)
(Neg-Cop-Neg Evid Leokádio thing-Irr Conj 3.Pron 3Sg-take-Des Mod-Superl)

It turns out that it was not for Leokádio, and he very much wanted to take it out.

No era, había sido, para Leokádio, y él demasiado quería sacarlo.


Matrix, narrator oriented.

ha’e oi-ko i-patrõ róga-pe-nte voiFocalizer Particle 'voi' ra'e.Matrix Clause, narrator's realization
3.Pron 3Sg-exist 3.Poss-boss house-Loc-only FOC Evid

he actually lives in his boss’s house, it turns out.

él vive en la casa de su patrón luego, había sido.


Matrix ra'e; narrator's realization.

[nimbo] óro meme-te nimbo ra'eMatrix, declarative, narrator oriented la i-kavaju kangue!
[Part] gold habitually-Superl Part Evid Def.Det 3.Poss-horse bone

It was all gold, it turns out, the horse’s bone!

Era todo oro, había sido, el hueso del caballo!


Matrix, speaker oriented.

The player (Subj of quotation) realizes.

Thought attributed implicitly to player = indirect discourse: narrator narrates from ‘player' PoV

According to consultant (M), if nimbo ra'e is at the beginning, it is narrator-oriented (it is no longer indirect speech): Nimbo ra'e óro meme-te la i-kavaju kangue

Story #13

(1) Upéi nimbo o-u hína ra'e heta kavaju ari-gua la pueblo-gui, la vía yké-pe.
After Part 3-come Cont Evid many horses on-source def.det town-from def.det train-rail side-loc.

Then it turns out many came on horse-back from the town, at the side of the road.

Después había sido vinieron muchos montando a caballo del pueblo, al costado de la vía.


Matrix, speaker/narrator oriented.

(2) O-kyhyje avei hikuái la o-hechá-va-gui; oi-mo'ã hikuái pláta-yvy-guy ra'e.
3-fear also 3.Pron.Pl def.det 3-see-Rel-from; 3-believe 3Pl.Subj hidden.treasure Evid

They were also very afraid of what they saw; they believed that it was the hidden treasure (they realized).

Tenían miedo también ellos de lo que vieron; creyeron ellos que era tesoro escondido.


Embedded ra'e, implicit copular structure (with no overt copula): matrix subj oriented (hikuái ‘they').

For M: embedded 'ha' not possible, but if we change matrix verb to ohecha (see), then 'ha' is possible and it gives it assertive strength: Ohecha hikuái pláta-yvy-guy-ha ra'e.

(3) Ndaje peteĩ garróte o-poi José Domingo –upéicha héra peteï-va la kavaju ari-gua ra'e –la Agui oĩ-ha ypy-eté-pe.
Report one big.stick 3-throw José Domingo –that.way name one-Rel def.det horse on-loc Evid -def.det Agustin 3-exit-Rel.Loc close-Superl-loc

It is said that José Domingo threw a big stick –that was the name of one of those coming on horseback, it turns out - right next to where Agui was.

Se dice que tiro un garrote José Domingo- así se llamaba uno de los que venían a caballo, había sido que-cerquita de donde estaba Agustín.


Matrix; narrator oriented.

(4) Ha nimbo ha'e nd-o-ké-i voi hína ra'e.
Conj Part 3Pron.Subj neg-3-sleep Foc Cont Evid

And it turns out that she wasn't sleeping.

Había sido que ella no estaba luego durmiendo todavía.


Matrix ra'e, narrator-oriented.

(5) Ha mama oi-mo'ã la pláta tuicha-itereí-va ryru ra'e la o-guerahá-va hína hikuái.
Conj mother 3-believe def.det money big-too.much-Rel container Evid def.det 3-take-Rel Cont 3.Pron.Pl

And mother believed that it was the very big container that was the thing they were carrying.

Y mamá creyó que era el recipiente muy grande que contenía el tesoro lo que estaban llevando ellos.


Embedded matrix, subject oriented (mother).

The embedded complement is an implicit copular structure (covert copula); ra'e is clitized on the embedded proposed focused Obj.

(6) Ha lo mitakaria'y oi-mo'ã oi-kuaá-ma mama ra'e la o-jehu vaekue Aguí-pe.
Conj def.det guys 3-believe 3-know-already mother Evid def.det 3-happen Temp.Distal Augustin.DOM

And the guys suspected that mother already knew what had happened to Agustin.

Y los muchachos creyeron que mamá ya sabía lo que le pasó a Agustín.


Embedded ra'e, matrix subject-oriented (the guys): realization/suspicion that the mother knew

From M: Subordinator ha is possible, but he strongly prefers without ha, in the context of the narration.

Ha adds strength, while oimo'ã… ra'e, introduces some doubt in this context: lo mitakaria'y oi-mo'ã oi-kuaa-ma-ha mama ra'e la o-jehu vaekue Aguí-pe.

Possible if we substitute oimo'ã with he'i (say), but substitution not natural in the context of the narration.

From M: Does not like very much to use ha with verb oimo'ã; he prefers to use orovia: Oimo'ã M hasy (??ha) vs. Orovia M hasyha. (Although he acknowledges that there are people that use it in conversation)

Story #14

(1) O-poro-juka la karai upéa ha oi-ke la ka'aguý-pe ra'e.
3-Indef-kill def.det man Dem Conj def.det forest-loc Evid

This man killed someone and entered the forest again, it appears.

El señor este asesinó y entró en el monte, había sido.


Matrix ra'e, narrator oriented.

(2) "Nd-ai-kuaá-iko che a-ké-pa ra'e térä-pa mba'e la oi-kó-va" --he'i.
Neg-1s-know-Foc 1S.Pro 1S-sleep-Q Evid but-Q thing def.det 3-happen-Rel 3.say

"I didn't know whether I was sleeping or what was happening," he said.

"No sabía si yo estaba durmiendo había sido o que lo que estaba pasando," dijo.


Embedded ra'e, wh-complement; Matrix subj (=speaker) oriented

Subj realizes that he doesn't know whether he was sleeping (i.e. the presupposition: sleeping or not sleeping).

Story #15

(1) Ha upe
ra'e che kyvy Alfonso umía.
Conj Dem around-loc
Evid 1S.Pos younger.son Alfonso there.

And around there, it appears that my younger son was ranching there, it turns out.

Y por ahí, parece que anda rancheando mi hijo menor, había sido que.


Matrix Evid, speaker oriented.

(2) ha che kyvy Alfonso katu o-ñeno hína ra'e la
Conj 1S.Pos younger.son Alfonso Emph 3-sleep Cont Evid def.det

...and my younger son Alfonso was sleeping, it appears in their room,

...y mi hijo menor Alfonso estaba durmiendo, al parecer, en su pieza,


Matrix Evid, speaker oriented.

(3) peteĩ rancho'i
hikuái ra'e).
one hut
3.Pron.Pl Evid) a random hut that they put up with poles and a light roof (there they had slept the night before, it appears)

...un rancho cualquiera que habían puesto con estaca y un techo ligero (ahí habían dormido toda la noche antes, había sido).


Matrix Evid, speaker oriented.

(4) (upéva
voi hekové-pe ra'e). 3-have-Rel Foc life-loc Evid

(that one that he had when he was alive).

(Ese que tenía en vida).


Matrix Evid, speaker oriented.

(5) Ha che kyvy Alfonso o-nakea hína ra'e,
Conj 1.Pos younger.son Alfonso 3-tobacco.chew Cont. Evid.

And my younger son Alfonso was chewing tobacco, it appears,

Y mi hijo menor Alfonso estaba mascando tabaco, al parecer,


Matrix Evid, speaker oriented.

Children's Narratives

Children's Narrative C1 - Child


C1- Ha la ijurúpe, ha upejave ho'a yvýpe ha onohẽ la ikũ ha osenti lástima la káva la reina hagué Terminative Subordinator-re ra'e Indirect Evidential.

Y después, de ida qué pasó?

And then, what happened on the way?


B- Ha upéi, mba'e ojapo ra'eIndirect Evidential mbarajaka ju'íre?

Y después, ¿qué le había hecho el gato a la rana?

And then, what had the cat done to the frog?

Children's Narrative C1 - Adult


B- Ha upéi, ohokuévo mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential ?

Y después, de ida qué pasó?

And then, what happened on the way?


B- Ha ko'ápe mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y aquí qué pasó? [mostrando la escena donde la rana caza un bichito con la lengua]

And what happened here? [showing the scene where the frog hunts a bug with its tongue]


B- Mba'e oĩ ra'eIndirect Evidential karríto ykére?

Qué había al lado del carrito?

What was next to the [baby] carriage?


B- Mávape ome'ẽse ra'eIndirect Evidential?

A quién quería darle?

And who did she want to give it to?

Children's Narrative C2 - Child


C2 - Ju'i onohẽ la ikũ ojagarra haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential (particle mbo short for nimbo) la ha'e oimo'a la káva oimo'a ha'e kuriPast Morpheme la mberu ha, mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential (particle mbo short for nimbo) káva ha onohẽ puku la ikũ, la kávape peteĩ ojagarra, la káva la réinape.

La rana sacó su lengua para agarrar había sido lo que ella creyó que era una mosca y, había sido que era una abeja y sacó largo su lengua, a una abeja le agarró, una abeja reina.

The frog stuck out its tongue to snatch what it thought was a fly, and it ended up being a bee and it stuck its tongue way out, and snatched a bee, a queen bee.


C2 - Ju'i onohẽ la ikũ ojagarra haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential (particle mbo short for nimbo) la ha'e oimo'a la káva oimo'a ha'e kuriPast Morpheme la mberu ha, mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential (particle mbo short for nimbo) káva ha onohẽ puku la ikũ, la kávape peteĩ ojagarra, la káva la réinape.

La rana sacó su lengua para agarrar había sido lo que ella creyó que era una mosca y, había sido que era una abeja y sacó largo su lengua, a una abeja le agarró, una abeja reina.

The frog stuck out its tongue to snatch what it thought was a fly, and it ended up being a bee and it stuck its tongue way out, and snatched a bee, a queen bee.

Children's Narrative C2 - Adult


B - Ha ápe, mba'e jahecha oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer?

Y aquí, que vemos que estaba pasando?

And here, what do we see happening?

Children's Narrative C3 - Child


C3. Opo ra'eIndirect Evidential la ju'i ha upe[r]i[r]e [k]atu la jagua ohecha

Saltó había sido la rana y después sique el perro vio.

It turns out that the frog jumped out and then the dog saw [it].

Children's Narrative C3 - Adult


B - Mba'e oiko hína ra'eIndirect Evidential ko'árupi?

Qué estaba pasando por aquí? [señalando la escena de la página 1]

What was happening here? [pointing to the scene in page 1]


B - Ha upéi, mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué había pasado?

And then, what had happened?


B - Mba'éicha ho'u la kávape ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y cómo le había comido a la abeja?

And how had it eaten the bee?


B - Moõ opo la ju'i ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Dónde había saltado la rana?

Where had the frog jumped?


B - Ha upéi, ojagarra rire mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, después de agarrarle qué había pasado?

And then, what had happened after grabbing it?


B - Ipochy piko ra'eIndirect Evidential mbarakaja?

Se enojó el gato?

Was the cat angry?

Children's Narrative C4 - Child


C4 - La mariposa ha la káva oĩ ha o saluda la mitã'ípe la ju'i. Ha upéi oĩ yvyra, oĩ flor, oĩ mariposa, oĩ káva, ha'e oimo'ã ra'eIndirect Evidential mberu.

La mariposa y la abeja estaban y le saludó al niño la rana. Y después había árbol, había flor, había mariposa, había abeja, ella pensó que era mosca.

The butterfly and the bee were there and the frog greeted the boy. And there were trees, there were flowers, there were butterflies, there were bees, it thought it was a fly.

Children's Narrative C4 - Adult


B - Ha la mitã'i piko ohechakuaa la ju'i opo hague ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y el niño se dió cuenta que la rana había saltado?

And did the boy realize that the frog had jumped out?


B - Upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después que había pasado?

And then what had happened?


B - Ha mba'e ojapótaProspective Aspect hínaContinuitive Aspect / Focalizer ra'eIndirect Evidential kuñakarai?

Y qué iba a hacer la señora?

And what was the woman going to do?

Children's Narrative C5 - Adult


B - Ha upémarõ, mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y entonces, qué pasó?

And then what happened?


B - Ha upéi, mba'e ojapo mitã'í ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué había hecho el niño?

And then, what had the boy done?


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué había pasado?

And then, what had happened?

Children's Narrative C6 - Adult


B - Ha ko'ápe mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential? [señalando la escena de la página 3 / pointing to the scene on page 3]

Children's Narrative C7 - Child


C7 - Ha omokõ ha ho'a péicha [realiza un movimiento hacia atrás como si fuera a caerse de espalda; child moves backwards as if he was going to fall on his back] [...] mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential (particle mbo short for nimbo) ojopi chupe káva ikũme.

Y tragó y se cayó así [...] había sido la avispa le picó en su lengua.

It swallowed and fell like this [...] the wasp stung its tongue.

Children's Narrative C8 - Adult


B - Ha mba'e ojapo hínaContinuitive Aspect / Focalizer ra'eIndirect Evidential hikuái? Emombe'úke Kítape.

Y qué estaban haciendo ellos? Contale a Kita.

And what were they doing? Tell Kita.


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después qué pasó?

And then what happened?

Children's Narrative C9 - Adult


B - Mba'e oiko hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ra'eIndirect Evidential ko'ápe. [señalando la escena de la pág. 1 / pointing at the scene on p.1]

Qué estaba pasando aquí?

What was happening here?


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué pasó?

And then, what happened?

Children's Narrative C10 - Adult


B - Mba'e oiko hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ra'eIndirect Evidential ápe? Eñamami ha emombe'u Kítape.

[señalando la escena de la página 1 / indicating the scene on p. 1]

¿Qué estaba pasando aquí? Mirá un poco y contale a Kita.

What was happening here? Look at it please and tell Kita.

Children's Narrative C11 - Child


C11-Káva, ojagarra, hatã ojoko la ikũpe, olia ha ho'u. Uperire ojopi chupe, oisu'u chupe ikũpe. Uperire ju'i omaña ko kuñáre[señala la mujer en la escena del picnic], ho'útaProspective Aspect hikuái te kuimba'éndi[ve]. Uperire ju'i oike kanástope ha kuñakarai ohecha la oku'évaRelativizer ha ojagarra ipópe ra'eIndirect Evidential ha la ichíko ho'u hínaContinuitive Aspect / Focalizer te ha ju'i osẽ ijyváre ha upéi ehóke! he'i chupe. Oho ha oitypa la tása ha opuka la kuimba'e ha la kuña ipochy.

Avispa, agarró, atajó fuerte con su lengua, enlió y comió. Después le picó, le mordió en la lengua. Después la rana le miró a esta mujer [señala la mujer en la escena del picnic], iban a tomar té con el hombre. Luego la rana entró al canasto y la señora vio algo que se movía y había sido agarró con su mano y su novio estaba tomando té y la rana salió por su brazo y luego le dijo: andáte! .Se fué y echó todo su taza y el hombre se rió y la mujer se enojó.

Wasp, it caught it, stopped it with its tongue, rolled its tongue up and ate it. Then the wasp stung it, it bit it in the tongue. Then the frog looked at this woman [indicates the woman in the picnic scene], they were going to have tea with the man. Then the frog went into the basket and the woman saw something moving and grabbed it with her hand and her boyfriend was drinking tea and the frog came out on her arm and then she said: go away! It went off and spilled her whole cup and the man laughed and the woman was angry.

Children's Narrative C11 - Adult


B - Mba'e ho'u ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Qué había comido?

What had it eaten?

Children's Narrative C13 - Child


C13 - Ju'i akãhatã o[gue]raha peteĩ tortúgape, la mitã omañaaa ohóvo ha la jagua omaña la maripósare ha upéi ju'i akãhatã opo la váldegui ha ndohechái la mitã'i ni la jagua, omañaa ohóvo hikuái la maripósare ha tortúga mante la ohechávaRelativizer. Upéi ombocháaau la ijárape ha opyta omaña la maripósa ha vichítore ha upéi ohecha peteĩ maravilloso flor ha oñaprende la flóre ojagarra haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator la vichíto ha ojagarra ha póinkchi ho'a. Upéa ra'eIndirect Evidential káva ha ojopi kaka chupe, na'ápe hína, ijapu'a voi la ikũ [señalando la escena de la página 9]. Oimo'ã vichíto ha mbo káva ra'eIndirect Evidential.

La rana traviesa llevaba una tortuga, el niño iba mirando y el perro miraba las mariposas y luego, la rana traviesa saltó del balde y no vieron ni el niño ni el perro. Iban mirando las mariposas y solo la tortuga fue la que vio. Después le hizo chau a su dueño y se quedó a mirar las mariposas y bichitos y luego, vio una flor maravillosa y se prendió por ella para agarrar el bichito y agarró y poink se cayó. Había sido eso era una avispa y le picó fuertísimo. Aquí fué y se abultó luego su lengua [señalando la escena de la página 9]. Creyó que era un bichito, había sido era avispa.

The mischievous frog was carrying a turtle, the boy was watching and the dog watched the butterflies and then, the mischievous frog jumped out of the bucket and the boy and the dog didn't see it. They were watching the butterflies and only the turtle saw it. Then it said bye to its master and it stayed to watch the butterflies and bugs and then, it saw a wonderful flower and it grab the flower to catch the bug and [the frog] caught [it] and plop! it fell. That was a wasp and it stung it [the frog] really hard. It was here, then its tongue swelled [indicating the scene on page 9]. It thought it was a fly, but it was [actually] a wasp.

Children's Narrative C14 - Child


Otopa peteĩ vichito'i ha ostira la ikũ ojagarra haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator la vichíto ha opo, nipo káva la ojagarra va'ekueRelativizer/Distal ra'eIndirect Evidential ha omboruru chupe la ikũ porque káva la oĩ va'ekueRelativizer/Distal, upé[v]a la ojagarra va'ekueRelativizer/Distal. Uperire, oĩ peteĩ kuña oprepara la ipicnic hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ha omaña ñemi hese ju'i hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer upépe ha opo la ikanástape ha opo'ẽ javete la kuña o[gue]nohẽ haguã la ikosa kuéra oñandu oku'e ku'évaRelativizer ha uperire opo la ipóre la ju'i ha oñemondýi tuchaiterei kuñakarai ha karai avei ha ho'apa chugui ilénte ha icafé entero ha oñemuña ju'i ha opuka hesekuéra pe karai.

Encontró un bichito y estiró su lengua para agarrar el bichito y saltó, había sido era una avispa lo que había agarrado y se le hinchó la lengua porque lo que había era avispa, eso fue lo que había agarrado. Luego, estaba una señora que estaba preparando su picnic y ahí la rana le estaba espiando y saltó a su canasta y justo cuando metió la mano la mujer para sacar sus cosas sintió algo que se movía y se movía y después saltó por su mano y demasiado grande se asustó la señora y el señor también y se le cayó todo su lente y su café y fue perseguida la rana y ese señor se rio de ellos.

It found a bug and stretched out its tongue to grab the bug and jumped, it was a wasp that it caught and its tongue swelled because it was a wasp, that was what it had caught. Then, there was a woman that was preparing her picnic and the frog was watching her there and it jumped on her basket and right when the woman put her hand in to take our her things, she felt something moving and moving and then it jumped on her hand and the woman got really scared and the man too and he dropped all of his glasses and his coffee the frog was chased off and that man laughed at them.

Children's Narrative C14 - Adult


B - Emombe'u chupe mba'épa oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential.

Contale que fue lo que pasó.

Tell her what happened.


B - Mávare opuka ra'eIndirect Evidential karai?

De quién se rio había sido el señor?

Who did the man laugh at?

Children's Narrative C15 - Adult


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué pasó?

And then, what happened?

Children's Narrative C20 - Child


Uperire ju'i omaña kuñakarai ha karaíre okarúta Prospective Aspect-vaRelativizer hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer, oike la kuñakarai kanástope ha upéi ha'e [señalando en la escena a la señora] opo'ẽ ha ju'i oĩ upépe ra'eIndirect Evidential. Osẽ ipóre ha oñemondýi hikuái, pe kuñararai ha pe arriéro a[ve]i. Pe kuña omombo la itása ju'íre.

Después la rana les miró a la señora y al señor que iban a comer, entró al canasto de la señora y luego ella [señalando en la escena a la señora] metió la mano y había sido la rana estaba ahí. Salió por su mano y se asustaron, esa señora y ese hombre también. Esa mujer le tiró a la rana con su taza.

Then the frog looked at the woman and the man who were going to eat, it went into the woman's basket and then she [indicating the woman in the scene] stuck in her hand and it turns out that the frog was there. It came out on her hand and they were scared, the woman and the man too. The woman threw her cup at the frog.

Children's Narrative C21 - Child


C21 - Ha upéi umi iñamiguitokuéra namoite mombyrýmaAspect / Focalizer (Already) oho chugui ha pe ju'i opyta ha'eño ha omboadio chupekuéra. Uperire upepete oĩ la ju'i ha o[gue]rojyse la ma'erã [refiriéndose a los bichitos] ho'u haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator ha uperire o[gue]rojy iléngua reheve, ha'e oimo'ã mosca ha ho'u ha ho'a ikupe[g]otyo, ndaha'éi ra'eIndirect Evidential mosca ha ho'u, ha káva ra'eIndirect Evidential. Oisu'u chupe ilenguaitépe; omboruru chupe.

Y después esos amiguitos suyos allá ya iban lejos de él y esa rana se quedó sola y les hacía adiós. Luego ahí mismo estaba la rana y quería bajar la cosa (refiriéndose a los bichitos) para comer y después bajó con su lengua, y ella pensó que era mosca y comió y se cayó de espalda, había sido no era mosca y comió y era avispa, había sido. Le mordió exactamente es su lengua; se le hinchó.

Then its friends over there went far away from him and the frog was alone and it said goodbye to them. Then the frog was right there and it wanted to take down the thing [referring to the bugs] to eat and then it took down [one] with its tongue, and it thought that it was a fly and ate it and it [the frog] fell over onto its back; it was not a fly and it ate it and it [the frog] fell on his back, and it turns out it was a wasp. It [the wasp] bit it [the frog] exactly on its tongue; it swelled up.


C21 - Peteĩ gato'i, ha upéi pe gato omaña ju'íre ha ju'i opo pe karrito'ípe ha kuñakarai ohechánte hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer líbro ha ju'i oguapy pe mitã'índi[ve]. La isy ome'ẽse chupe la tete ha había sido ju'ípe la ome'ẽva ra'eIndirect Evidential ha pe gatito'i opose hese, ndoikuaái mba'épa la ojapóta Prospective Aspect-vaRelativizer

Un gatito, y después ese gato le miraba a la rana y la rana saltó a ese carrito y la señora solo miraba el libro y la rana se sentó con el niño. La madre quería darle el biberón y había sido le dio a la rana y el gatito quería saltarle, [la rana] no sabía que es lo que iba a hacer.

A cat, and then the cat watched the frog and the frog jumped onto the carriage and the woman was just looking at the book and the frog sat down next to the boy. The mother wanted to give him the baby bottle and she gave it to the frog and the cat wanted to jump on it, it [the frog] didn't know what it was going to do.

Children's Narrative C21 - Adult


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué pasó?

And then, what happened?

Children's Narrative C23 - Child


C23 - Ha ju'i ivare'a ha omariskase vichíto ha ojagarra peteĩ ha ho'u, ojagarra peteĩ la vichíto oĩva flor-re, ho'u ha oñemondýi ha ho'a. Káva ra'eIndirect Evidential, ha ojopi chupe ikũme.

Y la rana tenía hambre y quería cazar un bichito y agarró uno y comió, agarró un bichito que estaba por la flor, comió y se asustó y se cayó. Había sido era avispa y le pico en su lengua.

And the frog was hungry and wanted to hunt a bug and it caught one and ate [it], caught a bug that was on the flower, it ate [it] and got scared and fell over. It was a wasp and it stung it on its tongue.

Children's Narrative C23 - Adult


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué pasó?

And then, what happened?


B - Ha upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y luego, qué pasó?

And then, what happened?


B - Upéi mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Luego, qué pasó?

Then, what happened?

Children's Narrative C24 - Adult


B - Upéi mba'e oiko ra'e?Indirect Evidential

Luego, qué pasó?

Then, what happened?

Children's Narrative C25 - Adult


B -Ha upéi, emombe'úke Kítape mba'épa oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, contale que a Kita lo que pasó?

And then, tell Kita what happened.

Children's Narrative C26 - Child


C26 - Ju'i oho hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer la párkere iñamígo kuérandi[ve] ha upéi la ju'i opo la váldegui ha pé[v]a la ohechávaRelativizer chupe [señalando la tortuga]. La iñamigokuéra oho la párkere ha la ju'i ombo cháu chupekuéra. Upéi la ju'i omangea peteĩ kósare, ho'u se la vichítope ha ho'u ha upé[v]a káva ra'eIndirect Evidential ha ojopi chupe ikũpe ha ho'a ha iruru la ikũ.

La rana estaba yendo por el parque con sus amigos y después la rana saltó del balde y ésta fue la que la vio [señalando la tortuga]. Sus amigos iban por el parque y la rana les hacía chau. Después la rana espiaba algo, quería comer un bichito y comió y había sido era una avispa y le picó en la lengua y se cayó y se le hinchó su lengua.

The frog was going through the park with its friends and then the frog jumped from the bucket and this one was the one who saw it [indicating the turtle]. Its friends went through the park and the frog said bye to them. Then the frog was watching something, it wanted to eat a bug and it ate [one] and it was a wasp and it stung its tongue and it fell over and its tongue swelled up.

Children's Narrative C26 - Adult


B - Ha upéi, upégui moõ oho ju'i ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después,de ahí adónde fue la rana?

And then, where did the frog go from there?

Children's Narrative C28 - Adult


B - Ha upéi? Mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential? Emombe'u Kítape.

Y luego? Qué pasó? Contale a Kita.

And then? What happened? Tell Kita.

Children's Narrative C29 - Child


C29 - Pini ha Kuri'i oiko Chákope ha hakueterei la Chákope, hesa pytãmbáma hikuái, la inambi entero pytãmba. Káva oĩ ko'ápe [señala en la escena el nido de avispas] hakueterei ha la hovakuéra pytã. Upéi oho hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ha oñedetene ha la tortúga omaña vai hesekuéra porque ho'u hikuái la túna ha ojopipaite chupekuéra. Alguien omoĩ ne ra'eIndirect Evidential chupekúera alcohol por no hasy chupekuéra.

Pini y Kuri'i vivían en el Chaco y en el Chaco hace demasiado calor, tenían los ojos todos rojos, hasta sus orejas estabas todas rojas. Aqui hay avispas, hacía demasiado calor y tenían la cara roja. Luego iban y se detuvieron y la tortuga les miraba mal porque comían la tuna y les pico todito. Seguramente que alguien les puso alcohol para que no les duela.

Pini and Kur'i lived in the Chaco and in the Chaco it was very hot, they had their eyes all red, even their ears were red. Here there are wasps, it was too had and they had their face red. Then they were going and they halted and the turtle was looking at them in a bad way [distrustfully ] because they were eating the tuna plant and they were stung [by it]. Probably someone put alcohol on them so that it wouldn't hurt.


C29 - Ogueraha hikuái la jepe'a, omotimbo ohóvo la polvo la i kamión reheve. Jepe'arã ogueraha ne ra'eIndirect Evidential hikuái ojetapy haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator.

Llevaron la leña, iban levantando polvo con su camión. Seguramente llevaban para leña, para hacer fuego.

They took the wood, raising dust with their truck. Probably they were taking wood to make fire.

Children's Narrative C34 - Adult


B - Ha upéi, mba'e oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential?

Y después, qué pasó? / And then, what happened?

Teacher Narrative 1 - Adult


B - Mbo'ehára, emombe'umi ko moñe'erã "Ju'i akãhatã," che ahechaukáta Prospective Aspect-ta Prospective Aspect-ta Prospective Aspect ñane amiguítape ko'ápe oguapy hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer, ha'e ohenduse nde remombe'úvo chupe guaraníme. Mba'épa oiko ra'eIndirect Evidential  peteĩ ára?

Profesora, contá un poco este cuento "La rana traviesa." Yo te mostraré estas imágenes y vos le vas a contar a nuestra amiguita Kita que está aquí sentada, ella quiere escuchar cuando vos le narrás en guaraní. Qué había pasado un día? [mirando escena en la primera pag]

Professor, please tell this story "The Mischievous Frog." I'll show you these pictures and you're going to tell our friend Kita who's sitting here. She wants to listen as you narrate in Guaraní. What had happened one day? [looking at the scene on the first page]

Teacher Narrative 2 - Teacher


D - Peteĩ mitã'i oho hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer jaguándi[ve] ha oguereko váldepe ju'i, upeichaháguinte, oguatakuévo hikuái, ju'i opo kuriPast Morpheme váldegui. Jagua ha mitã'i ohómaAspect / Focalizer (Already) mombyry ha ju'i opyta chuguikuéra. Ju'i ohecharamomba la oĩva ijerére, ohecha peteĩ panambípe. Uperire katu ostira ikũ ha ojagarra peteĩ mymba'i, omoĩ ikũre, omoingéta Prospective Aspect jave ijurúpe mbo ra'eIndirect Evidential ha'e peteĩ káva, oisu'umo'aite chupe. Tuchaite[re]i oñemondýi.

Un niño está yendo con el perro y tiene en un balde una rana, de repente al caminar ellos, la rana saltó del balde. El perro y el niño ya se iban lejos y la rana se quedó de ellos. La rana admiraba todo lo que había a su alrededor, vio a una mariposa. Luego estiró su lengua y agarró un animalito, puso por [en] su lengua, y cuando iba a meter a su boca había sido era una avispa, casi le mordió. Se asustó muy grande.

A boy was going with the dog and he had a frog in a bucket, suddenly as they were walking, the frog jumped out of the bucket. The dog and the boy went off far away and the frog stayed away from them. The frog admired everything around it, it saw a butterfly. Then it stuck out its tongue and caught a bug, put it by [on] its tongue, and when it was going to put it into its mouth, it realized it was a wasp, which almost bit it. It got really scared.

Teacher Narrative 3 - Teacher


D -           Peteĩ ára, peteĩ mitã oho de paseo hymba jaguándi[ve] ha peteĩ váldepe o[gue]raha hapicha ju'ípe. Ojesareko ohóvo ha'e paharito kuérare ha upeichahágui oñeme'ẽ'ỹre en kuénta, la ju'i opo, osẽ la váldegui. Ha'e ndopillái la ju'i opytahague tapére. Upéi ju'i opo opo ohóvo ha oguahẽ heta yvoty oĩháme, heta oĩ la yvoty. Peichaháguinte ivare'a ju'i, ivare'aiterei. O[gue]nohẽ la ikũ ha ho'úmaAspect / Focalizer (Already) katu peteĩ vichíto; ogueru peteĩ tuicháva ikũ púntare. Ho'u vove, ho'ámaAspect / Focalizer (Already) katu de lómo. Nimbo ra'eIndirect Evidential káva la oúva la ikũre.

Un día, un niño fue de paseo con su perro y en un balde le llevaba a su amiga la rana. El iba mirando los pajaritos y de repente, sin darse cuenta, la rana saltó, salió del balde. El no se dio cuenta que la rana se había quedado por el camino. Después la rana fue saltando y saltando y llegó donde había muchas flores, había muchas flores. De repente la rana tuvo hambre, demasaida hambre. Sacó su lengua y ya comió sique un bichito, trajo por la punta de su lengua uno de gran tamaño. Cuando comió, ya se cayó sique de espalda, había sido era una avispa lo que vino por su lengua.

One day, a boy took a walk with his dog and carried his friend the frog in a bucket. He was watching the birds and suddenly, without noticing, the frog jumped, left the bucket. He did not realize that the frog had stayed on the path. Then the frog was jumping and jumping and came to where there were many flowers, there were many flowers. Suddenly the frog was hungry, too hungry. It stuck its tongue out and ate a bug, it brought in a big one on the tip of its tongue. When it ate it [the bug], it [the frog] fell on its back, it was a wasp that came on its tongue.


Upéi, oho ju'i omangea peteĩ paréhare oĩva hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ka'aguy mbytépe. Ojapo hikuái piknik hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer ra'eIndirect Evidential, o[gue]raha la ikanásta de frutas ha omangea hese ju'i; oikesémaAspect / Focalizer (Already) upépe, oikémavoi katu. Kuñakarai ndohechái la ju'i oike hagueTerminative Subordinator la kanástape, opovyvy, opovyvy ha'e la ikanástope. Peichaháguinte oñandu ho'ysa'í[v]a la ikanástope, ojeliámaAspect / Focalizer (Already) katu ipóre ju'i. Oñemondýi hikuái, oveve la ihárro, ilénte entero ho'apa chugui ha upéa omondýi la ju'ípe. La karai, la kuñákarai ména, ojapajeréi opuka ikangypa peve hese. Entoces ju'i oheka jey otro tape oheka haguãIrrealis 'ha' Subordinator ho'uva'erã porque ha'éngo ivare'a hína Continuitive Aspect / Focalizer kuriPast Morpheme, aje[pa]?

Luego la rana fue a espiar a una pareja que estaba en el medio del bosque. Había sido estaban haciendo picnic, llevaron su [una] canasta de frutas y la rana le espiaba; quería entrar en ella, ya entró sique. La señora no vio que la rana había entrado en la canasta, metió y metió la mano en su canasto. De repente sintió algo medio frío en su canasto, ya se lio sique por su mano la rana. Se asustaron ellos, su jarro voló, hasta su lente se le cayó [al marido] y eso le asustó a la rana. El señor, el marido de la señora, se revolcaba, se reía de ella hasta languidecer. Entonces la rana buscó de nuevo otro camino para buscar algo de comer porque ella tenía hambre, verdad?

Then the frog went to spy on a couple that was in the middle of the forest. It turns out that they were picnicking, they carried a basket of fruits and the frog watched them; it wanted to go into it [the basket], and it went in. The woman did not see that the frog had gone into the basket, she put her hand in the basket. Suddenly she felt something somewhat cold in the basket, the frog rolled onto her hand. They got scared, his cup went flying, he [the husband] even dropped his glasses and that scared the frog. The man, the woman's husband, was laughing and laughing at her until he got weak [from laughing]. Then the frog looked for another path again to look for something to eat because it was hungry, right?


Omuña la mbarakaja la ju'ípe, ojagarrámaAspect / Focalizer (Already) katu chupe hetymágui, ojopy chupe pe yvýpe ha upépe ou la iñamígo kuéra odefende chupe. Ovy'aite[re]i ju'í porque había sido otopa jey chupe la iñamigo kuéra ra'eIndirect Evidential. Ou la iñamígo oguerekóva la valde; la tortuguita ha la jagua, ohopa jey hikuái hógape oñondive.

El gato le corrió a la rana, ya le agarró sique de su pierna, le apretó en el suelo y ahí vinieron sus amigos a defenderle. La rana se puso muy feliz porque había sido sus amigos la encontraron de nuevo. Vino el amigo que tenía el balde [y] la tortuguita y el perro. Fueron de nuevo todos juntos a casa.

The cat ran after the frog, it grabbed its leg, it pressed it to the ground and its friends came to defend it [the frog]. The frog was happy because its friends found it again. The friend that had the bucket came [and] the little turtle and the dog. They all went home again together.

Children's Narrative C2A - Adult


G: Mba'éichapa nde réra ra'eIndirect Evidential?

¿Cómo me dijiste que te llamabas?

What did you say your name was?